Pathological changes in the fallopian tubes and ovaries can also be the cause of female infertility:
Thickening of the fallopian tube walls, their dysfunction, impaired patency, or complete occlusion is a common consequence of pelvic inflammatory disease, but can also be caused by undiagnosed infection, such as after an abortion, or as a result of asymptomatic chlamydia or gonorrhea infection.
Endometriosis or congenital anomalies can be the cause as well. Women with damaged fallopian tubes not only have a low or no chance of spontaneously conceiving, but also have an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg is stopped along its journey through the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, nests there, and destroys the fallopian tube, or causes it to rupture, bleed into the abdominal cavity, and thus threatening the woman’s life.
Pelvic adhesions usually form as a result of inflammatory disease in a woman’s pelvic area, e.g., in severe appendicitis, after abdominal surgery, during endometriosis, but also during an undetected, insidious inflammation without serious complications.
Despite the use of modern endoscopic methods (laparoscopy), the majority of pelvic adhesions are difficult to be surgically treated, and repeated surgeries can lead to the formation of new adhesions. That is why infertility treatment for the occurrence of lower clearance in the fallopian tubes or their blockage includes assisted reproductive methods, namely in vitro fertilization (IVF).
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