Determining the causes of infertility of otherwise healthy couples requires various types of medical tests, but just basic discussion with a specialist and the first examination can relieve psychological pressure and bring new hope, fortitude and the will to be treated. For easier communication, the initial interview can start by filling out a personal questionnaire with specific questions related to the patient’s relevant health condition, previous diseases, operations, pregnancies and infertility treatments, also menstrual cycle quality etc.
Insemination IUI is an assisted reproduction method used when a woman has at least one non-blocked, passable fallopian tube. Insemination is performed if the partner’s sperm quantity or motility is insufficient for conception. Sperm quantity over 5 million/ml together with motility of 50% in the a+b category is considered the lower limit for a chance to conceive. In such cases, the insemination is performed after ovulation induction.
Under normal conditions, woman’s body produces several egg cells every month, but only one of them matures completely. Its development and its ability to mature and to be released from an ovary (ovulation) is controlled by the pitituary gland (hypophysis) hormones – follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
In vitro fertilization (IVF) IVF is an essential method in today’s assisted reproductive medicine. It has several components: ensuring ideal conditions for merging of the embryonic cells (egg, spermatozoa) outside the woman´s body, observing the development and the formation of embryos in the laboratory, selecting the most suitable embryos and placing them back into the woman´s (the receptor´s) uterine cavity. An IVF cycle has several phases.
PGD is a relatively new, advanced method used to identify genetic defects of the embryo before implanting it into its prospective mother´s uterus. To this day, it is the only method that can prevent conceiving of a child with disability and, conversely, can assist in finding an embryo for a successful transfer without defects and diseases. PGD is the only option for families with poor genetic predispositions to prevent a transfer of serious genetic defects and diseases.
The MESA technique is intended for men suffering from a vas deferens obstruction. Vas deferens is a tube that enables transport of the sperm from the testicle to the urethra during ejaculation. Spermatozoa are usually created, but they cannot penetrate the cap in the urinary tract. TESE is appropriate for the treatment of the non-obstructive form of azoospermia. Testicles usually do not produce mature and functional sperm cells. In such case, it is sufficient for the seminiferous tubules of the testicles to contain enough undeveloped sperm cells.