Hysteroscopy is an endoscopic examination to verify possible abnormalities in the cervix and uterine cavity, such as polyps, myomas, endometrial inflammation, or growth defects. It also allows for the treatment of such abnormalities by removing the polyps, myomas, uterine septum, small adhesions, or gathering endometrial samples for further examination.
It is often indicated based on the changes found during ultrasound examination, hysterosalpingography or sonohysterosalpingography, or substituting these methods. It is the preferred method in modern medicine, often combined with laparoscopy. When used together, these two methods provide comprehensive information about the condition of the patient’s internal reproductive organs. Hysteroscopy is performed using an endoscope, a device containing a camera and a light source to examine the actual state of the uterine cavity.
The first half of the menstrual cycle is the most optimal for hysteroscopy – after menstrual bleeding. The preparation is similar to laparoscopy – see laparoscopy. As before laparoscopy, the general practitioner must perform a pre-operative examination.
The physician inserts an endoscope, a narrow device about 4-6 mm thick, through the cervix into the uterus. The uterine cavity is filled with fluid, which stretches it out and makes it easier to examine. The examination is performed under general anesthesia. The patient usually discharged 2 hours after the procedure. If the procedure includes laparoscopy, the patient is discharged the next morning.
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