Hysterosalpingography is a radiological examination of the shape and passages of the uterine canal and fallopian tubes using a radiographic contrast medium. It is used to reveal uterine congenital anomalies and narrowing or obstruction of fallopian tubes. HSG is done after menstrual bleeding in the first half of the cycle. A contrast medium is injected into the uterine cavity via a special cannula (Schultze’s cannula), which caulks the cervix. The passage of the contrast medium through the patient’s internal reproductive organs is then monitored by a radiological device.
The examination is not complicated and takes approximately 15 minutes. It is performed jointly by a gynecologist and a radiologist. The procedure can be painful; the uterine cavity is being filled with the contrast medium. Hence, it is performed after the administration of analgesics. This diagnostic procedure certainly has its place in the algorithm of methods examining infertility, but lately, it has been neglected. The main reasons are the effects of X-ray radiation, the risk of pelvic organ infections, and less comfort for the patient.
This examination can be substituted by other imaging methods, such as sonohysterosalpingography or hysteroscopy.
Using sonohysterosalpingography, the passing of the contrast medium through the reproductive system is monitored by an ultrasound diagnostic device. Hysteroscopy is often performed in combination with laparoscopy and assessment of fallopian tube patency, which together gives a comprehensive picture of the condition of the internal reproductive organs.
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